Authors: Dan Li, Rebecca A. Jackson, Permeen Yusoff and Graeme R. Guy
Signal Transduction Laboratory, IMCB, Proteos, Singapore.
Published in Journal of Biological Chemistry, Aug 24, 2010. [Epub ahead of print].
The mammalian SPRED (Sprouty-related protein with an EVH1 domain) proteins comprise a family of three members: SPRED1-3. Currently, little is known about their biochemistry. The best described, SPRED1, has been shown to inhibit the Ras/ERK pathway downstream of Ras. All three SPREDs have a cysteine-rich domain (CRD) that has high homology to the CRD of the Sprouty family of proteins, several of which are also Ras/ERK inhibitors. In the belief that binding partners would clarify SPRED function, we assayed for their associated proteins. Here, we describe the direct and endogenous interaction of SPRED1 and SPRED2 with the novel kinase, DYRK1A. DYRK1A has become the subject of recent research focus as it plays a central role in C. elegans oocyte maturation and egg activation, and there is strong evidence that it could be involved in Down Syndrome in humans. Both SPRED1 and SPRED2 inhibit the ability of DYRK1A to phosphorylate its substrates: Tau and STAT3. This inhibition occurs via an interaction of the CRD of the SPREDs with the kinase domain of DYRK1A. DYRK1A substrates must bind to the kinase to enable phosphorylation, and SPRED proteins compete for the same binding site to modify this process. Our accumulated evidence indicates that the SPRED proteins are likely physiological modifiers of DYRK1A.